Termite Control

Any building or facility is prone to termite damage, there are numerous ways to control termite infestation. It can start prior to building your home (Pre-construction Anti-Termite Control) and when your house/building is already built (Post-Construction). There are also varied choices for the materials you wish to use for the control, be it chemical (liquid or bait matrix) or physical barriers (wire mesh). Below are some more information for anti – termite control.

what-r-termitesTermites are soil or wood inhabiting insects which generally have soft, white bodies and highly practice random feeding. They are small in size (4-11 mm) and are sometimes called “white ants” due to some similarities. Mostly they could be found in damp and rotting wood.

These insects are classified under the order Isoptera (iso = equal and pteron = wing), wherein they have equally-sized wings. Shedding of wings usually occurs after a short nuptial flight, which males and females pair up to start a new colony.

All termites are cellulose eaters – meaning they consume fibers of various plant and trees. They are able to extract cellulose due to protozoa in their system that comes from the queen. These creatures are highly considered destructive by nature.

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Termites are social insects that live in a nest or colony. This colony is typically located underground, wherein often near a tree or stump. Each colony contains four forms or castes namely: workers, soldiers, secondary reproductives, and primary reproductives (queen and king). Each member of the colony performs a specific role as defined by their hierarchy. This job specialization is what makes termites so productive and destructive.

Worker termites lack eyes and wings. They are white to grayish-white with a round, yellow-brown head and about 1/4 to 3/8 inch long. Workers can comprise as much as 80% of a colony. Their main function is to maintain the nest and forage for cellulose-based foods that they provide to the rest of the colony. The foraging and feeding activities are the damage result to structural wood.

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Soldier termites: If the colony is disturbed, the very first termites that will be present are the soldiers. Termites belonging on this class are wingless and somehow resemble worker termites except for a very large yellowish-brown head with dark-colored mandibles (jaw). The sole purpose of the soldiers is to defend the colony at any cost against any invader such as ants.
If a human goes poking around a termite colony, the very first termites to be encountered
are the soldier termites. Soldier termites are wingless and resemble workers except
that they have large, rectangular, yellowish and brown heads with large mandibles (jaws). The sole purpose of the soldier is to defend the colony against enemies such as ants.

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Secondary Reproductive Termites:  They are being produced in mature colonies. They are winged termites (commonly called “swarmers” or technically termed as “alates”) that are usually brown-black to reddish-brown color and about 1/4 to 3/8 inch long. Their wings can extend up to twice their body size during maturity period. If the queen of the colony dies, one of the secondary reproductives will immediately take over. All of the matured reproductives leave the colony at the same time, habitually in spring or sometimes in fall. After landing on the ground, the initiative of each male is to find compatible mate to start a new colony. Swarmers have small percentage of surviving due to many factors. But once detected, this is considered a serious sign of infestation.

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Secondary reproductives are also commonly confused with winged ants. However, being mistaken by looking from a distance, they have several distinct visible differences between them. The representation below will give clarification on how to detect reproductive termite from a winged ant.

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Primary Reproductive (Queen and King): A typical termite colony will have a single pair of primary reproductives, which is the queen and king. The main purpose of the Queen termite is to reproduce and to constantly supply “protozoa” needed by the workers to enable them to extract cellulose from wood. The King’s responsibility on the other hand is to continuously mate with the queen for life. A mature Queen can lay thousands of eggs each day and some of the workers take care of these during their two-week incubation period. The approximate life span of a queen is known to be 15-25 years.

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3573622Physical Termite Barriers – This approach is designed to protect the foundation of a structure and help homeowners detect termite activity without the use of liquid-based termiticide. These are typically made out of foam, stainless steel mesh, and other materials intended to prevent termites from having access to the property. Appropriate placement and installation of barriers can provide termite protection for houses with little to no risk of pesticide exposure to the people.

1. Metal Mesh

This is a unique physical termite barrier using a simple concept of woven stainless mesh mainly to stop termites from entering homes through concealed entry points. The main objective of metal mesh installation is to completely close any gap between structures. This is considered by many to be the most effective of all termite barriers for new houses.

Recommended areas of application

a. The first area that needs this kind of protection is around plumbing pipes coming through the slab. The metal mesh is fixed to these pipes before the slab is poured and embedded into the concrete, sealing off the gap between pipe and concrete.

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b. The second is the outer cavity of the building. The metal mesh is installed in this area by fixing on the concrete slab.

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2. Trithor Polymer Sheet

This unique approach use weave of fibrous blanket to prevent entry of termites. The polymer sheet contains crystals of highly potent termite control agent that repels termites, driving them away from the property.

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3. Terminest Baiting System

This approach is intended to intercept foraging termites feed them with bait matrix that has a slow-killing mode of action. Termites will eventually pass this bait to other members of the colony. The transfer of the bait matrix is extremely effective because worker termites that forage food must feed the rest of the colony member, including the queen.

Procedure of Installation and Inspection

a. Monitoring bait stations will be installed around the perimeter of the establishment, each is equipped with wooden interceptors.

b. Initial inspection must be done frequently to carefully observe possible termite occurrence.

c. Once termites are detected, the bait matrix (in a form of dough-like) will then be added to the bait station where infestation occurs. The bait matrix will slowly act on the termite’s system by inhibiting the ability to synthesize the production of “chitin”. In this way, termites will not be able to molt which will result to suffocation and dehydration. The Bait matrix can easily be transferred to other members, which will lead to colony elimination.

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Under PCC Footing or Pile Cap Foundation

  1. Remove all unnecessary materials and level the soil to be treated.
  2. A termiticide solution will be sprayed prior to the PCC footing or pile cap foundation. The dilution and application rates per square meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation. Provision of polyethylene sheet is recommended to extend period of casting up to 36 hours.

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Trench around the Footing/Pile Cap Foundation

  1. Backfill the sides up to the top level of the footing/pile cap.
  2. Make a trench with 150mm width x 150mm depth along the perimeter of the footing/pile cap.
  3. A termiticide solution will be applied into the trench along the perimeter of the footing/pile cap. The dilution and application rates per linear meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation.
  4. Backfill the trench within 36 hours of treatment.
  5. For footing/pile caps deeper than 1 meter, repeat steps 1 to 4 until the proposed foundation is totally backfilled.

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Trench along the sides/perimiter of Retaining Wall

  1. Backfill the sides of the retaining wall up to 1 meter deep.
  2. Make a trench with 150mm width x 150mm depth along the sides of the retaining wall.
  3. A termiticide solution will be applied into the trench along the perimeter of the retaining wall.  The dilution and application rates per linear meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation.
  4. Backfill the trench within 36 hours of treatment.
  5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 until the required level of backfilling is achieved.

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Under PPC of Tie Beams

  1. Remove all unnecessary materials and level the soil to be treated.
  2. A termiticide solution will be sprayed prior to the PCC of tie beams. The dilution and application rates per square meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation. Provision of polyethylene sheet is recommended to extend period of casting up to 36 hours.

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Underground slab and along the sides of Tie Beams

  1. Remove all unnecessary materials and level the soil to be treated.
  2. Make a trench measuring 150mm width x 150mm depth along the perimeter of the tie    beams.
  3. A solution of the termiticide will be sprayed prior to the casting of the ground slab. The same solution will be applied along the perimeter of the tie beams. The dilution and application rates per square / linear meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation.
  4. Provision of polyethylene sheet is recommended to extend period of casting up to 36 hours.

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Along the outside perimeter of the Building

  1. Make a trench, 150mm in width and 150mm in depth, along the external perimeter of the building at the same level of the landscape.
  2. A termiticide solution will be sprayed into the trench along the external perimeter of the building. The dilution and application rates per linear meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation.
  3. Backfill the trench within 36 hours after the treatment.

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Pesticides can be categorized into the following: Organophosphates, Organochlorines, Carbamates, Pyrethroids and Green Pesticides.
Organochlorines are organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded chlorine atom. Their wide structural variety and divergent chemical properties lead to a broad range of applications.

Many pesticides contain chlorine. However, many of its derivatives are controversial and some have been banned in various countries because of the adverse effects of these compounds on the environment.

Some of the notable examples include DDT, dicofol, heptachlor, endosulfan, chlordane,aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, and pentachlorophenol.

 

Organophosphates – refers to a group of insecticide or nerve agents acting on the enzymeacetylcholinesterase. Organophosphate pesticides irreversibly inactivate acetylcholinesterase, which is essential to nerve function in insects, humans, and many other animals.

Organophosphate pesticides degrade rapidly by hydrolysis on exposure to sunlight, air, and soil, although small amounts can be detected in food and drinking water. Their ability to degrade made them an attractive alternative to the persistent organochloride pesticides, such as DDT,aldrin and dieldrin. Although organophosphates degrade faster than the organochlorides, they have greater acute toxicity, posing risks to people who may be exposed to large amounts

Commonly used organophosphates have included parathion, methyl parathion,chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, phosmet, tetrachlorvinphos, and azinphos methyl.

An example of Organophosphate termiticide available in the South Africa is Contra Insect 480 TEC which contains the active ingredient Chlorpyrifos.

 

Carbamates – are organic compounds derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH). A carbamate group, carbamate ester, and carbamic acids are functional groups that are inter-related structurally and often are interconverted chemically. Carbamate esters are also called urethanes.

Carbamate insecticides kill insects by reversibly inactivating the enzymeacetylcholinesterase. The organophosphate pesticides also inhibit this enzyme, although irreversibly, and cause a more severe form of cholinergic poisoning.

Some examples of insecticides from this group are aldicarb, carbofuran, Furadan,fenoxycarb, carbaryl (Sevin), ethienocarb, and fenobucarb.

 

Pyrethroids – are synthetic chemical compounds similar to the natural chemical pyrethrinsproduced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum). Pyrethroids now constitute a major proportion of the synthetic insecticide market and are common in commercial products such as household insecticides. In the concentrations used in such products, they may also have insect repellent properties and are generally harmless to human beings in low doses but can harm sensitive individuals. They are usually broken apart bysunlight and the atmosphere in one or two days, and do not significantly affect groundwaterquality.

Some examples of pyrethroids are Allethrin, Bifenthrin, Cypermethrin, Cyfluthrin, Fenvalerate and Permethrin.

An example of a pyrethroid termiticide available in the South Africa is Premise SC 200 whichcontains the active ingredient Imidacloprid

 

Green pesticides – are pesticides derived from organic sources which are consideredenvironmentally friendly and causing less harm to human and animal health, and tohabitats and the ecosystem. These pesticides are also called ecological pesticides.

In agroecology, pesticides are evaluated for minimal adverse environmental effects.Biocides include germicides, antibiotics, antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals and antiparasites. Pesticides typically come in the form of sprays anddusts. Many ecological pesticides are biological pesticides, but others are minerals or chemical compounds.

An example of a green pesticide available in the South Africa is Bora-Care which contains a borate mineral salt as its active ingredient.

 

Picture2CONTRA INSECT 480 TEC (Frunol Delicia)

Contra Insect 480 TEC is used for the control of subterranean termites in soils, either pre or post construction treatment and is effective for buildings with slabs, basement and crawl spaces.

The active ingredient Chlorpyrifos, belongs to the chemical group Organophosphate and has a strong contact, stomach and respiratory effect. Contra Insect 480 TEC’s residual efficacy comes from its ability to bind with soil particles for many years.

Dilution Rate: 1L Contra Insect 480 TEC = 49L Water

 

premisePREMISE SC 200 (Bayer Environmental Science)

Premise SC 200 is an innovative termiticide from Bayer used by more and more Pest Control Operators (PCO). The active ingredient, Imidacloprid, belongs to a new class of chemicals called Chloronicotinyls.

Termites will enter the non-repellent Premise – treated zone for a few centimeters but are rapidly affected by the active ingredient. They become dysfunctional, stop feeding and are no longer able to coordinate their tunneling through the soil.

Dilution Rate: 1L Premise SC 200 = 200L Water

 

boracareBORA-CARE (Nisus Corporation)

Bora-Care is formulated with a concern for the environment. It contains the active ingredientDisodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate which is a borate mineral salt.

Borate salts work by taking advantage of a unique feature in the biology of termites, ants and other insects. If ingested by termite, ants or beetles, the insect becomes unable to extract nutrition from its food and starves to death.

Bora-Care has also been given an Environmental Award and Overall Grand Prize winner at the National Green Building Conference by the Green Builder Magazine.

Dilution Rate: 1L Bora-Care = 1L Water

Summary of Termiticide

Criteria Contra Insect 480 TEC Premise SC 200 Bora-Care
Active Ingredient Chlorpyrifos Imidacloprid Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate
Insecticide Classification Organophosphate Choronicotinyls Borate-salt
Dilution Rate

(mixed with water)

1:49 1:200 1:1
Application Rate 4-5L per square meter / 5-6L per linear meter 4-5L per square meter / 5-6L per linear meter 200ml per square meter
Insecticide Category Category II: Warning Category II: Warning Category IV: Caution (Green Chemical)
Mode of Action Non-repellent termiticide Non-repellent termiticide Bait and repellent termiticide

Under PCC Footing or Pile Cap Foundation

  1. Remove all unnecessary materials and level the soil to be treated.
  2. A termiticide solution will be sprayed prior to the PCC footing or pile cap foundation. The dilution and application rates per square meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation. Provision of polyethylene sheet is recommended to extend period of casting up to 36 hours.

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Trench around the Footing/Pile Cap Foundation

  1. Backfill the sides up to the top level of the footing/pile cap.
  2. Make a trench with 150mm width x 150mm depth along the perimeter of the footing/pile cap.
  3. A termiticide solution will be applied into the trench along the perimeter of the footing/pile cap. The dilution and application rates per linear meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation.
  4. Backfill the trench within 36 hours of treatment.
  5. For footing/pile caps deeper than 1 meter, repeat steps 1 to 4 until the proposed foundation is totally backfilled.

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Trench along the sides/perimiter of Retaining Wall

  1. Backfill the sides of the retaining wall up to 1 meter deep.
  2. Make a trench with 150mm width x 150mm depth along the sides of the retaining wall.
  3. A termiticide solution will be applied into the trench along the perimeter of the retaining wall.  The dilution and application rates per linear meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation.
  4. Backfill the trench within 36 hours of treatment.
  5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 until the required level of backfilling is achieved.

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Under PPC of Tie Beams

  1. Remove all unnecessary materials and level the soil to be treated.
  2. A termiticide solution will be sprayed prior to the PCC of tie beams. The dilution and application rates per square meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation. Provision of polyethylene sheet is recommended to extend period of casting up to 36 hours.

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Underground slab and along the sides of Tie Beams

  1. Remove all unnecessary materials and level the soil to be treated.
  2. Make a trench measuring 150mm width x 150mm depth along the perimeter of the tie    beams.
  3. A solution of the termiticide will be sprayed prior to the casting of the ground slab. The same solution will be applied along the perimeter of the tie beams. The dilution and application rates per square / linear meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation.
  4. Provision of polyethylene sheet is recommended to extend period of casting up to 36 hours.

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Along the outside perimeter of the Building

  1. Make a trench, 150mm in width and 150mm in depth, along the external perimeter of the building at the same level of the landscape.
  2. A termiticide solution will be sprayed into the trench along the external perimeter of the building. The dilution and application rates per linear meter will be based on manufacturer’s recommendation.
  3. Backfill the trench within 36 hours after the treatment.

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The first week on each new site is the most dangerous and accidents are more frequent at the end of the day. To minimize accidents at the work site, most construction companies conduct health and safety induction training to all employees and personnel entering the work sites.  A sticker placed on hard hats bearing the name or logo of the contractor is a symbol that an employee has completed the health and safety induction training.

1.      Head Covering

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The hair and skin on the neck and head must always be protected. This is important in situations where exposure from chemical sprays is possible. Chemical-resistant rain hats, wide brimmed hats and washable hard hats are good. Do not use cotton or felt hats as they absorb pesticides.

2.      Goggles And Respirator

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Wear shielded safety glasses or a full-face shield whenever the chemical could possibly contact your eyes. Safety glasses with brow and side shields are acceptable for low exposure situations. Always wear goggles or full-face respirator when you are pouring or mixing concentrates or working in a highly toxic spray or dust. In high exposure situations when both face and eye protection are needed, a face shield can be worn over goggles. Clean them after each use.

3.      Respirators

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Respirators protect the applicator from inhaling toxic chemicals. The label will tell you if a respirator is required. Consider wearing one during any lengthy exposure with a high risk of pesticide inhalation. Always wear a respirator while mixing or filling highly toxic pesticides. Applicators who will be constantly exposed to small amounts of moderately toxic pesticides for a day or several days, should also wear a respirator.

4.      Gloves

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Always wear chemical-resistant gloves when handling all pesticides. Never use leather or cotton gloves as these types of gloves can be more hazardous than no protection at all because they absorb and hold the pesticide close to your skin for long periods of time.

5.      Safety Shoes

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Always wear safety shoes when working in the site or when handling or applying moderately or highly toxic pesticides. Wash the shoes after each use and dry thoroughly inside and out to remove all pesticide residue. Use them only for pesticide applications.

6.      Body Covering And Safety Vest

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Regular work attire of long pants and a long-sleeved shirt, shoes, and socks should always be worn when applying pesticides. Many applicators prefer work uniforms and cotton coveralls that fit the regular-work-attire description and provide equal protection. Applicators should reserve one set of clothing for pesticide use only. Launder and store separately from all other clothing.

1.      Hazard Lights On Vehicle

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All vehicles must be equipped with appropriate hazard and stop lights. These warning lights should be used at all times while working inside the project site.

2.      Use Of Warning Signboards At The Work Site

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Prior to the start of chemical application, warning signs should be in place at the work site to notify all workers that anti-termite treatment application is in progress.

Vehicle and Equipment

Tank Capacity

In Liters: 750 Liters

In Gallons: 200 Gallons

Tank Material: Stainless Steel

Tank measurements:

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Water Inlet Pipe: 4 inches

Drain Pipe: 2 inches

Supply Pipe: 1 inch

Return Pipe: 1.90 cm

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SPECIFICATIONS

Model Honda GX 160 (S-Type)
Engine Type Air-cooled 4-stroke OHV
Dimension 305mm x 341mm x 318mm
Dry Weight 13.0 to 18.0 kg
Displacement 163 cm3
Bore and Stroke 68.0 x 45.0 mm
Net Power Output 4.8HP (3.6kW) @ 3,600 rpm

(pumps approx. 500ml water per second when pressure is set at 25 bar)

Oil Capacity 0.6L
Fuel Tank Capacity 3.1L
Fuel Unleaded 86 octane or higher

Compartments 1 and 2

Length (upper side): 70cm

Length (lower side): 121cm

Width: 54cm

Height: 47cm

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Compartment 3

Length: 68cm

Width: 54cm

Height: 44cm

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Stainless steel

50-meter hose

0.25 inch diameter (hose opening)

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